References

Anticholinergics, First-generation antihistamines

  • https://tapermd.com/resources/anticholinergic-burden/. “Simon FER and Simons KJ. (2008). H1 Antihistamines. Current Status and Future Direction. Review article. World Allergy Organ J. 1(9): 145-155. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23282578
  • Slavin RG. (2009). Treating rhinitis in the older population: special considerations. Allergy, Asthma, and Clin Immunol. Review. 5(1):9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20016692

Anticholinergics, anti-Parkinson agents

  • FDA monograph (Cogentin): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2013/012015s026lbl.pdf
  • US National Library of Medicine: Medline Plus. (2019). Benztropine. https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a682155.html
  • Prescribing information: Benztropine [product monograph]: https://pdf.hres.ca/dpd_pm/00029138.PDF
  • Provider Synergies LLC. (2010). Antiparkinson’s Agent Review. https://medicaid.nv.gov/Downloads/provider/NVRx_D+G5CR_20100624_Antiparkinsons_Agents.pdf
  • FDA monograph (Artane): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2003/006773_S036_ARTANE.pdf
  • US National Library of Medicine: Medline Plus. (2019). Trihexyphenidyl. https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a682160.html

Anticholinergic agents, antispasmodics

  • https://tapermd.com/resources/anticholinergic-burden/
  • FDA monograph (atropine): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2018/212319s000lbl.pd
    FDA monograph (scopolamine): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2013/017874s038lbl.pdf
  • US National Library of Medicine: Medline Plus. (2019). Hyoscyamine. https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a684010.html

 

Antithrombotics, dipyramindol, ticlopidine

  • FDA monograph (Persantine): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2005/012836s057lbl.pdf
    Product monograph (Novo-dipiradol): https://pdf.hres.ca/dpd_pm/00002942.PDF
  • FDA monograph (Ticlid): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2001/19-979S018_Ticlid_prntlbl.pdf

Anti-Infectives, Other: Nitrofurantoin

  • FDA monograph (Macrobid): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2009/020064s019lbl.pdf
    Arkansas Geriatric Education Collaborative. 2016. 2015 Beers Criteria nitrofurantoin recommendation. https://agec.uams.edu/2016/05/24/2015-beers-criteria-nitrofurantoin-recommendation/”

Cardiovascular, alpha agonists, central: Peripheral alpha-1 blockers for the treatment of hypertension

  • FDA monograph (Cardura): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2009/019668s021lbl.pdf
  • FDA monograph (Minipress): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2009/017442s033lbl.pdf
  • FDA monograph (Hytrin): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2009/019057s022lbl.pdf
  • Marshall HJ, Beevers DG. (1996). Alpha-adrenoreceptor blocking drugs and female urinary incontinence: prevalence and reversibility. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 42: 507-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2042702/pdf/bcp_0452.pdf”

Cardiovascular, other, Central alpha-agonists

  • Aronow WS, Fleg JL, Pepine CJ et.al. (2011). ACCF/AHA Expert Consensus Document on Hypertension in the Elderly: A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on the Clinical Expert Consensus Documents. Circulation. 123(21):2434–2506. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21518977

Cardiovascular, other: Clonidine

  • FDA monograph: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2009/017407s034lbl.pdf

Cardiovascular, other: Disopyramide

  • Drug monograph (Norpace): https://www.pfizer.com/files/products/uspi_norpace.pdf

Cardiovascular, other: Dronedarone

  • FDA monograph: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2011/022425s010lbl.pdf
  • American College of Cardiology (ACC), American Heart Association (AHA), and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Atrial Fibrillation. Washington, DC: American College of Cardiology.

Cardiovascular, other: Digoxin

  • FDA monograph (Lanoxin): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2011/020405s006lbl.pdf
  • FDA prescribing information (Lanoxin): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2010/020405s004lbl.pdf
  • Marcel Gossselink AT, van Veldhuisen DJ, Crijns HJGM. (1997). When, and when not, to use digoxin in the elderly. Drug & Aging. 10(6): 411-20. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.2165%2F00002512-199710060-00002.pdf
  • Currie GM, Wheat JM, Kiat H. (2011). Pharmacokinetic considerations for digoxin in older people. The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal. 5:130-135. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3134946/pdf/TOCMJ-5-130.pdf

Cardiovascular, other: Nifedipine, immediate release

  • FDA monograph (Adalat): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2011/020198s023lbl.pdf

Cardiovascular, other: Amiodarone

  • FDA monograph (Cordarone): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2010/018972s042lbl.pdf

Central nervous system, antidepressants

CNS-active drugs as per the AGS: antiepileptics; antipsychotics; benzodiazepines; nonbenzodiazepine, benzodiazepine receptor agonist hypnotics; TCAs; SSRIs; SNRIs; and opioids

  • FDA monograph (amitriptyline): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2014/085966s095,085969s084,085968s096,085971s075,085967s076,085970s072lbl.pdf
  • FDA monograph (amoxapine): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2014/072691s036lbl.pdf
  • FDA monograph (clomipramine): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2007/019906s34lbl.pdf
  • FDA monograph (desipramine): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2014/014399s069lbl.pdf
  • FDA monograph (imipramine): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/040903lbl.pdf
  • FDA monograph (nortriptyline): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2007/018012s27lbl.pdf
  • FDA monograph (paroxetine): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/020031s067,020710s031.pdf
  • FDA monograph (protriptyline): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2018/Vivactil.pdf
  • FDA monograph (trimipramine): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/016792s034lbl.pdf

Antipsychotics

  • https://tapermd.com/resources/antipsychotics/ “FDA monograph (Seroquel): https://www.fda.gov/media/72986/download
  • Kuehn BM. (2005). FDA warns antipsychotic drugs may be risky for elderly. JAMA. 293(20): 2462. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/200951
  • FDA monograph (Abilify): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2016/021436s041,021713s032,021729s024,021866s026lbl.pdf
  • FDA monograph (Loxitane): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/017525s051,017658s038,018039s024lbl.pdf
  • Divac N, Stojanovic R, Savic Vujovic K, et al. (2016). The efficacy and safety of antipsychotic medications in the treatment of psychosis in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Behavioral Neurology. Volume 2016, Article ID 4938154, 6 pages. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4967673/pdf/BN2016-4938154.pdf
  • Oderda LH, Young JR, Asche CV, Pepper GA. (2012). Psychotropic-related hip fractures: meta-analysis of first-generation and second-generation antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs. Ann Pharmacother. 46(7-8): 917-28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22811347″

Central nervous system, Barbiturates

  • Drug monograph (Nembutal): https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/getFile.cfm?setid=5c380ab0-4386-48b6-80ab-ca594b23bc74&type=pdf&name=5c380ab0-4386-48b6-80ab-ca594b23bc74
  • Benzodiazepines https://tapermd.com/resources/benzodiazepines/
  • Choosing Wisely Canada. (2017). Five things physicians and patients should question: Don’t use benzodiazepines or other sedative-hypnotics in older adults as the first choice for insomnia, agitation or delirium. https://choosingwiselycanada.org/geriatrics/
  • Madhusoodanan S, Bogunovic OJ. (2004). Safety of benzodiazepines in the geriatric population. Expert Opinion on Drug Safety. 3(5):485-93. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1517/14740338.3.5.485
  • FDA monograph (Xanax): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2016/018276s052lbl.pdf
  • FDA monograph (Valium): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2008/013263s083lbl.pdf”

Central nervous system, other: Meprobamate

  • FDA monograph:  https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/psg/Meprobamate_final_Oral%20tab_RLD%20009698_RC10-11.pdf

Nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics

  • FDA monograph (Ambien): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2008/019908s027lbl.pdf
  • FDA monograph (Sonata): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2007/020859s011lbl.pdf
  • FDA monograph (Lunesta): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2014/021476s030lbl.pdf
  • Treves N, Perlman A, Kolenberg Geron L, et al. (2018). Z-drugs and risk for falls and fractures in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Age Ageing. 47(2): 201-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29077902
  • Yu NW, Chen PJ, Tsai HJ, et al. (2017). Association of benzodiazepine and z-drug use with the risk of hospitalization for fall-related injuries among older people: a nationwide nested case-control study in Taiwan.
  • BMC Geriatrics. 170: 140. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5504671/pdf/12877_2017_Article_530.pdf
  • Shih HI, Lin CC, Tu YF, et al. (2015). An increased risk of reversible dementia may occur after zolpidem derivative use in the elderly population. Medicine (Baltimore). 94(17): E809. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4603066/”

Central nervous system vasodilators: Ergoloid mesylates Isoxsuprine

  • Prescriber’s Drug Reference. (2019). Ergoloid mesylates–drug summary. https://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Ergoloid-Mesylates-ergoloid-mesylates-735
  • Chemical data sheet (Hydergine): https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/chem_background/exsumpdf/hydergine_508.pdf
    NIH US National Library of Medicine: Daily Med. (2018). Label: Isoxsuprine hydrochloride. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=6baec489-724b-4184-9529-7b9ca3573025″

Endocrine system, androgens

  • FDA monograph (methyltestosterone): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2015/083976s032lbl.pdf

Endocrine system, other: Desiccated thyroid

  • Product monograph (Armour Thyroid): https://www.allergan.com/assets/pdf/armourthyroid_pi
    Royal College of Physicians. (2011). The diagnosis and management of primary hypothyroid. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/53b1670ee4b0be242b013ed7/t/543ee743e4b05588d7c67389/1413408579862/RCP+Diagnosis+and+management+of+primary+hypothyroidism+2011.pdf”

Endocrine system, estrogens with or without progestins; include only oral and topical patch products

  • FDA monograph (estradiol): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2005/081295s014,084499s042,084500s044lbl.pdf

Endocrine system, other: Growth hormone

  • Liu H, Bravata DM, Olkin I, et al. (2007). Systematic review: the safety and efficacy of growth hormone in the healthy elderly. Ann Intern Med. 146(2): 104-115. https://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/732002/systematic-review-safety-efficacy-growth-hormone-healthy-elderly

Endocrine system, other: Insulin, sliding-scale regimen

  • Munshi MN, Florez H, Huang ES, et al. Management of Diabetes in Long-term Care and Skilled Nursing Facilities: A Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2016;39(2):308–318. doi:10.2337/dc15-2512

Endocrine system, other: Megestrol

  • FDA monograph (Megace): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/020264s017lbl.pdf
    Ruiz Garcia V, Lopez-Briz E, Carbonell Sanchis R, et al. (2013). Megestrol acetate for treatment of anorexia-cachexia syndrome (review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 3:CD004310. https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD004310.pub3/media/CDSR/CD004310/CD004310.pdf”

Endocrine system, sulfonylureas, long-duration

  • FDA monograph (Diabinese): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2008/011641s064lbl.pdf
  • FDA monograph (Glynase): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2011/020051s017lbl.pdf
  • FDA monograph (Glucovance): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/021178s016s017lbl.pdf
  • FDA monograph (Amaryl): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2009/020496s021lbl.pdf
    Glyburide, Gliclazide or Glimepiride for Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Review of the Clinical Effectiveness and Safety – An Update [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health; 2015 Aug 18. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK315876/”
  • Gastrointestinal: Metoclopramide FDA monograph (Reglan): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/017854s062lbl.pdf

Gastrointestinal: Mineral oil given orally

  • Schiller LR. (2001). Constipation and fecal incontinence in the elderly. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America. 30(2):497-515. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0889855305701928
    Meltzer E, Guranda L, Vassilenki L, et al. (2006). Lipoid pneumonia: a preventable complication. IMAJ. 8(1):33-35. https://www.ima.org.il/MedicineIMAJ/viewarticle.aspx?year=2006&month=01&page=33″

Proton Pump Inhibitor

  • https://tapermd.com/resources/proton-pump-inhibitor/
  • FDA monograph (pantoprazole): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/020987s045lbl.pdf
  • Tleyjeh, I., Bin Abdulhak, Aref., Riaz, M., Alasmari, F., Garbati, M., AlGhamdi, M., Rahman Khan, A., Al Tannir, M., Erwin, P., Ibrahim, T., AlLehibi, A., Baddour, L., & Sutton, A. (2012). Association between proton pump inhibitor therapy and Clostridium difficile infection: a contemporary systematic review and meta-analysis. Plos One. 7(12), 1-12
  • Zhou, B., Huang, Y., Li, H., Sun, W., & Liu, J. (2015). Proton-pump inhibitors and risk of fractures: an update meta-analysis. Osteoporosis International, 26(10), 1-9. doi: 10.1007/s00198-015-3365-x “

Opioid Medications: Meperidine

  • FDA monograph (Demerol): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/005010s055lbl.pdf
  • Latta KS, Ginsberg B, Barkin RL. (2002). Meperidine: a critical review. Am J Ther. 9(1):53-68. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11782820
  • Friesen KJ, Falk J, Bugden S. (2016). The safety of meperidine prescribing in older adults: A longitudinal population-based study. BMC Geriatr. 16:100. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4864911/#CR6″

Pain medications, nonaspirin NSAIDs

https://tapermd.com/resources/non-selective-ns…selective-nsaids/

  • FDA. (2018). FDA drug safety communication: FDA strengthens warning that non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can cause heart attacks or strokes. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-safety-and-availability/fda-drug-safety-communication-fda-strengthens-warning-non-aspirin-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory
  • FDA (Motrin): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2007/017463s105lbl.pdf
  • FDA (Voltaren): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2009/019201s038lbl.pdf
  • FDA (Mobic): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/020938s022lbl.pdf
  • FDA (Naprosyn): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2016/018965s022s023lbl.pdf
  • Hoppman RA, Peden JG, Ober SK. (1991). Central nervous system side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: aseptic meningitis, psychosis, and cognitive dysfunction. Arch Intern Med. 151(7): 1309-1313. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/615266

Pain medications: Indomethacin, Ketorolac, includes parenteral

  • FDA. (2018). FDA drug safety communication:   FDA strengthens warning that non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can cause heart attacks or strokes. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-safety-and-availability/fda-drug-safety-communication-fda-strengthens-warning-non-aspirin-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory
  • FDA monograph (Indocin IV): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2010/018878s027lbl.pdf
  • FDA monograph (Toradol): https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2013/019645s019lbl.pdf
  • Hoppman RA, Peden JG, Ober SK. (1991). Central nervous system side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: aseptic meningitis, psychosis, and cognitive dysfunction. Arch Intern Med. 151(7): 1309-1313. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/615266

Pain medications, skeletal muscle relaxants

  • Witenko C, Moorman-Li R, Motycka C, et.al. (2014). Consideration for the appropriate use of skeletal muscle relaxants for the management of acute low back pain. P T. 39(6): 427-435. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4103716/

Genitourinay: Desmopressin FDA monograph (Nocdurna)

  • https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2018/022517Orig1s000Lbl.pdf

Beta-blockers

Beta Blockers